matic pressure through the medium of a third Power interested in safe- guarding peace (Western Democracies,, in the case of Czecho-Slovakia and Poland), and the action of the Fifth Column exclusively based on the work of German inhabitants in the countries he was about to attack. Russia's activities were more complex., and she tried her utmost to get the backing of at least one section of the Polish people who would be prepared to execute her plans. This task proved hopeless at the time,, but Moscow persistently tried to achieve its goal by using the same methods which the N.K.V.D. had employed during the £ elections ' in Eastern Poland, and to bend the will of the population to their design, although this population was then as yet still under German rule. It was a most remarkable and extraordinary undertaking which has no precedent in the records of history. Such an undertaking could only be bom in the minds of men who had been studying the phenomenon of revolution for years, not for pleasure, but for practical purposes, namely^ how to achieve a revolution in their own and other countries. If ^the scheme to influence and break the will of people, who were under the heel of another rival conqueror at the time, appeared to give little result, some advantage would, nevertheless, have been gained by the time this rival was defeated, for at any rate the ground-work of a civil war would have been laid. Therefore, after the severance of Polish-Russian diplo- matic relations, the attack was launched on a large scale. The prepara- tions were carried out along three lines:—firstly, by the creation in Moscow of a substitute Polish Government on Russian soil, embodied in the e Union of the Polish Patriots,5 and secondly, by the formation of a centre of Russian influence inside Poland itself by the restoration of the Polish Communist Party (dissolved by Moscow in 1937) under another name, and the endeavour to develop it as a competitor to the existing Polish Underground authorities. Thirdly, the Kremlin intended to isolate the Polish Government, to eject it from the ckcle of the United Nations and cut it off from the Polish people and, by this action compel the United Nations to resign from their commitments towards Poland and leave her entirely at the mercy of Moscow. Its diplomatic action in this direction was supported by propaganda (in which their enormous funds played no small part), on an extensive scale. In 1927, one of the delegates of the American Trade Union in Moscow had asked Stalin whether there was any truth in the story that Russia was sending a great deal of money to the Communist Party in America. Stalin had denied this statement. From the early days of 1942, Soviet propaganda in the countries of the United Nations and in occupied Europe was conducted on such a lavish scale, however, that, had this same question then been put to ^Stalin, he would no doubt have let it pass unanswered. In point of fact, the financial position of the Soviets from their eatry -, ,**&. i " .af.A-.P .